中国植物保护学会植物化感作用专业委员会Chinese Allelopathy Society, CSPP

Title: Allelopathic growth stimulation of plants and microorganisms

Author(s): Mallik MAB, Williams RD

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 175-198 OCT 2005

Abstract: Growth promotion of plants by other plants and microorganisms, as well as that of microorganisms by plants and other microorganisms, is discussed. Agrostemma githago in mixed culture with wheat enhances growth and yield of wheat. Allantoin, a purine derivative and the principal component of agrostemin released from A. githago, is the growth factor. Soil amended with shoots of Solanum nigrum, enhances the soybean growth and nodulation. Growth and yield of several legumes are enhanced by mixed culture with Heliotropium peruvianum. Triacontanol isolated from alfalfa, and brassinolide from rape and alder pollen, stimulates the growth and yield of several crops. Chromosaponin 1, isolated from etiolated pea seedlings, stimulates the growth of lettuce by 190 %. Petunioside M stimulates the growth of cucumber and suppresses the cucumber mosaic virus. Strigolactones, isolated from host or non-host plants, promote seed germination of angiospermous parasites. Unidentified allelochemicals from Chenopodium album and Setaria viridis enhances the growth of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in broth culture.Seed inoculation with selected strains of Pseudomonas capacia and P. putida enhances the growth and yield of wheat under field conditions. Inoculation of soybean seeds with a strain of Bacillus cereus enhances the growth and nodulation of soybean by indigenous nodulating bacterium. Several soil microbes, with appropriate precursors, produce plant growth regulators that enhance the plant growth. Tomatoes grown in soil amended with L-ethionine at the appropriate concentration produce more and larger fruits than the untreated soil. Pearl millet inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and grown in solution culture amended with tryptophan produces more lateral roots with greater root hair density than the control. Microbial metabolites enhance the growth of several Rhizobiuim species and promote reproduction in certain fungi. These examples indicate that the allelochemicals from plants and microorganisms have potential to enhance the yield of agricultural products, while promoting sustainable agriculture.

Author Keywords: allantoin; auxins; cytokinins; ethylene; gibberellins; nitrogen fixation; petunioside; plant-microbe interaction; rhizosphere microorganisms; saponin; strygolactones


Addresses: Williams RD (reprint author), Langston Univ, USDA ARS GRL, POB 1730,Agr Res & Extens, Langston, OK 73050 USA
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Title: Soil sickness in forestry trees

Author(s): Caboun V

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 199-208 OCT 2005

Abstract: The auto toxicity of tree species secretions, regulates the stand structure. The negative effects of one plant species on soil, cultivated in one place for long time and the associated problems have been summarized (11, 12). The soil fatigue is a cyclic phenomena, caused by the unilateral development of soil microflora, allelopathy, accumulation of toxins in the soil, development of pathogenic microorganisms, other pests and weeds changes in soil pH and disturbed soil structure etc. In agriculture, soil fatigue is connected to allelopathy, however, in forestry little data are available. The monoculture of tree stand for long periods slowly intoxicates the soil, leading to the gradual changes in tree species composition. These accumulated toxic substances may be absorbed by other plants and microorganisms, bound to these plants and after some time the former composition of stand could be restored. Based on of current typology, the changes in tree species structure are not considered, as it may be due to site conditions. Therefore, autointoxication (besides other anthropogenic effects) contributes to the weakening of individual tree species, which gradually causes dieback in fir or attack of pests and diseases on elm, spruce and oak.

Author Keywords: Accacia; allelopathic; beech; elm; fir; forest trees; larch; oak; pine; regeneration problem; soil fatigue; soil sickness; spruce


Addresses: Caboun V (reprint author), Forestry Res Inst Zvolen, Masaryk St 25, Zvolen, Slovakia
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Title: Allelopathic activity and identification of allelochemicals from Rumex japonicus Houtt.

Author(s): Elzaawely AA, Xuan TD, Tawata S

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 209-216 OCT 2005

Abstract: Unlike phenolics from other plant species, phenolics from Rumex japonicus have not been documented. The aims of this work were to analyze the phenolic compounds in the aerial parts and roots of Rumex japonicus and study their allelopathic activity. HPLC and GC-MS analyses showed the presence of protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic and ferulic acids, vanillin and pyrocatechin in aerial parts. Besides these six compounds, caffeic acid was detected in roots. In bioassay, the extracts from aerial parts and roots significantly decreased the seedling growth of lettuce and barnyardgrass and the inhibition of roots was greater than shoots. The pyrocatechin was present in large amounts in the aerial parts and appeared to be responsible for the activity of the aerial parts, while the phytotoxicity of roots may be due to the presence of protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids as well as pyrocatechin.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; germination; phenolics; phytotoxicity; Rumex japonicus; seedling growth


Addresses: Tawata S (reprint author), Univ Ryukyus, Fac Agr, Dept Biosci & Biotechnol, Okinawa, 9030213 Japan
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Title: Effects of sesame seed cake allelochemicals on the growth cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun 4)

Author(s): Ruan WB, Wang J, Pan H, Li HB, Wang JG, Zhang FS, Gao YB

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 217-225 OCT 2005

Abstract: Based on our previous study, the Fraction III (one of 4 fractions which separated from the 95% ethanol extracts of sesame seed cakes), was further separated into 23 portions by a gradient of CHCl3 - MeOH (9:0.5,V/V). The tenth portion consisted of palimitc acid, oleic acid and octadecanoic acid, identified by GC-MS. To evaluate the effect of palimitic acid and oleic acid on the cucumber plant growth and the mechanism of their action, a series of potted experiments were conducted in greenhouse. The results showed that application of palmitic and oleic acids to sick soil significantly increased the dry weight and chlorophyll content of cucumber. However, the cucumber shoot Na content was decreased, because lower amount of Na was transferred to the shoot. Furthermore, the antagonistic effects of oleic acid under salt stress, were confirmed in hydroponics culture. The analysis of the soil microbial populations at harvest indicated that the activity of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes were markedly promoted, especially bacteria (P <= 0.001). The results suggested that the fatty acids probably have potential substance to improve the soil borne diseases occurring either in the greenhouses or orchards.

Author Keywords: cucumber; oleic acid; palmitic acid; sesame seed cake; soil sickness


Addresses: Wang JG (reprint author), China Agr Univ, Dept Plant Nutr, Beijing, 100094 Peoples R China;Nankai Univ, Coll Life Sci, Tianjin, 300071 Peoples R China

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Title: Allelopathic activity of a testa-derived solution from Siberian maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.) seeds

Author(s): Cawly J, Newton S, Bolyard M

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 227-238 OCT 2005

Abstract: We have studied the endogenous secondary metabolites present in the testa layers of Siberian maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.) fruit. We examined physical and chemical properties (specific gravity, light absorbance) of the testa-derived solution 'osmoticate', media conditions (pH, phytagar concentration) and the testa structure before and after the rehydration using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We examined in vitro, the effects of osmoticate on the seed germination and seedling development of both monocots [fescue (Festuca rubra L.)], dicots [tomato (Lycopersicon esculentuni Mill.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)], In addition to the species examined here, other organisms were tested in preliminary bioassays, including single-celled alga (Oscillatoria and Oedogonium; Carolina Biological) by adding varying concentrations of osmoticate to algal cultures. Low concentrations of osmoticate showed a stimulatory effect, indicating that perhaps the osmoticate was providing additional nutrients or, not surprisingly, that the osmoticate contains low levels of plant growth hormones (19). The effects of higher concentrations of osmoticate have been inconclusive. All three test species showed impaired root development: root length was less in tomato; root orientation was abnormal in lettuce; while in fescue, secondary root development dominated the primary root length (near zero). Besides, we also examined the effect of the osmoticate on A. ginnala seed germination. Mostly seeds remained dormant in the presence of this soluction, osmoticate. These results strongly suggest that osmoticate may contain powerful, multi-functional allelochemical(s) that inhibit development of the competitors in the plant community and also simultaineously regulate the germination of Siberian maple.

Author Keywords: Acer; allelochemicals; allelopathy; dormancy; embryo; metabolites; osmotic potential; radicle; testa

KeyWords Plus: DORMANCY

Addresses: Bolyard M (reprint author), So Illinois Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Edwardsville, IL 62026 USA
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Title: Chlorogenic acid content in sweetpotato germplasm: Possible role in disease and pest resistance

Author(s): Peterson JK, Harrison HF, Snook ME, Jackson DM

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 239-249 OCT 2005

Abstract: Fourteen sweetpotato clones representing wide genetic diversity were field grown under low stress conditions. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined in periderm and cortex tissues of these clones. On dry weight basis, chlorogenic acid content in the periderm tissues ranged from 33 to 214 mu g g(-1) dry tissue and in the cortex from 1416 to 4213 mu g g(-1) dry tissue (181 to 1384 mu g g(-1) on fresh weight basis). In vitro bioassays were done to assess the bioactivity of chlorogenic acid on seed germination of proso millet (Panicum milliaceum L.), growth of four sweetpotato pathogenic fungi and growth and survival of diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella). The highest levels of chlorogenic acid occurring in sweetpotato cortex tissue, exceeded the lowest concentrations that inhibited the growth and survival of diamondback moth larvae and the growth of three of four sweetpotato pathogenic fungi tested.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; bioassays; chlorogenic acid; concentration response; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium solani; Ipomoea batatas; Lasiodiplodia theobromae; Panicum milliaceum; Plutella xylostella; Rhizopus stolonifer; sweetpotato


Addresses: Harrison HF (reprint author), USDA ARS, Russell Res Ctr, Athens, GA 30604 USA
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Title: Allelopathic effects of Poa pratensis on other grassland spp.

Author(s): Lipinska H, Wanda H

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 251-259 OCT 2005

Abstract: We estimated the allelopathic potential of water leachates from Poa pratensis leaves, sampled each month from May to September. The seeds of test species were irrigated daily with Poa pratensis leaf water leachates (1.25, 2.50, 5.00%). The distilled was used as control. The content of phenolic compounds was determined in the plant material. The effects of leaf water leachatcs of Poa pratensis on tested grass species, depended on the sampling dates of leaves. This implies that the accumulation and release of phytotoxins from plant tissues was affected by weather conditions as well as by plant developmental phase. The leaf leachates collected in July were most inhibitory to the growth of the studied species, because these leachates had the highest content of phenolic compounds. White clover proved the most and perennial ryegrass the least susceptible to allelopathic influence of P. pratensis.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; extracts; leachates; Lolium perenne; Phleum spp.; Poa pratensis; phenolic compounds; seasonal influences


Addresses: Lipinska H (reprint author), Dept Grassland & Green Farming, 15 Akad Str, Lublin, PL-20950 Poland
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Title: Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) and effective microorganisms (EM) on various plants under allelopathic stress

Author(s): Bajwa R

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 261-271 OCT 2005

Abstract: Field and pot trials were conducted to investigate the effects of allelopathy on development of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the role of AM association in alleviating the allelopathic stress on crop growth. In field studies, the allelopathic grasses [Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv and Dicanthium annulatum (Forssk) Stapf.] decreased the mycorrhizal colonization of associated weeds. In pot trial the allelopathic stress of Melia azedarach L. leaf mulch on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) was significantly reduced by introducing AM fungi, Consequently, the root and shoot growth of mycorrhizal plants was improved than non-mycorrhizal plants. In another pot trial, AM inoculation significantly decreased the negative effects of aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumuni (L.) Skeels on growth, yield and N-content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. The potential to provide relief against allelopathic stress by AM fungi was found to be further enhanced by EM (Effective microorganisms) application.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; chickpea; Dicanthium annulatum; EM; Imperata cylindrica; maize


Addresses: Bajwa R (reprint author), Univ Punjab, Dept Mycol & Plant Pathol, Lahore, Pakistan
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Title: Weed suppression by winter cover crops

Author(s): Ercoli L, Masoni A, Pampana S

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 273-278 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; brown mustard; cover crops; hairy vetch; rye; weeds


Addresses: Ercoli L (reprint author), Dipartimento Agron & Gest Agroecosistema, Via San Michele Scalzi 2, Pisa, I-56125 Italy
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Title: Effect of aqueous extracts of root and stubble of oat (Avena sativa L.) on seedling growth and protein utilization in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

Author(s): Gupta K, Jain V, Solanki IS, Tulika

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 279-287 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: aqueous extract; dry weight; growth; mungbean; oat; plumule; protein; radicle; root; stubble

Addresses: Gupta K (reprint author), Haryana Agr Univ, Dept Biochem, Hisar, Haryana 125004 India
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Title: Allelopathic effects of weeds on germination and seedling growth of tomato

Author(s): Sannigrahi AK, Chakrabortty S

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 289-293 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: Cynodon dactylon; Cyperus rotundus; Eupatorium odoratum; Imperata cylindrica; Ipomoea sepiaria; Mikania cordata; Parthenium hysterophorus; seed germination; seedling vigour; tomato

Addresses: Sannigrahi AK (reprint author), Minist Def, Proof & Expt Estab, Balasore, Orissa 756025 India
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Title: Allelopathic effects of Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stuntz. on germination and seedling growth of rice

Author(s): Punjani BL

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 295-299 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; fresh and dry matter; germination; Prosopis chilensis; root and shoot length; seedling growth

Addresses: Punjani BL (reprint author), Plot 200 ,AMBAR,Dist Shopping,Sector 21, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382021 India
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Title: Effect of Ocimum americanum leachates on seed germination and seedling growth of Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Author(s): Thapar R, Singh NB

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 301-308 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; bioassay; chlorophyll; germination; Ocimum americanum; Parthenium hysterophorus

KeyWords Plus: CUCUMBER

Addresses: Singh NB (reprint author), Univ Allahabad, Dept Bot, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh 211002 India
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Title: Effects of pollens of Datura alba L. on some crops

Author(s): Gaur S, Rana A, Chauhan SVS

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 309-315 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus; Brassica juncea; Datura alba; Lycopersicon esculentum; pollen allelopathy; Solanum melongena L.


Addresses: Gaur S (reprint author), Dr BR Ambedkar Univ, Sch Life Sci, Dept Bot, Khandari Campus, Agra, Uttar Pradesh 282002 India
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Title: Impact of leaf extract of Populus deltoides Marsh on germination and seedling growth of greengram (Vigna radiata L.)

Author(s): Mandal MP, Das DK, Singh AK

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 317-322 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: aqueous extracts; germination; greengrann; Populus deltoides; seedling growth

Addresses: Das DK (reprint author), Rajendra Agr Univ, Dept Bot & Plant Physiol, Samistipur, Bihar 848125 India
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Title: Allelopathic studies of chillies (Capsicum annuum L.)

Author(s): Sindhu G, Kumar S, Sindhu A, Abdulla MK, Ali H

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 323-328 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: Amaranthus viridis; Capsicum annuum; inhibition; leachates; plumule; radicle; Trianthema portulacastrum

Addresses: Kumar S (reprint author), Kisan Post Grad Coll, Dept Bot, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 245207 India
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Title: Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leachates on germination and seedling growth of weeds

Author(s): Sindhu A, Kumar S, Sindhu G, Ali H, Abdulla MK

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 329-334 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; Amaranthus viridis; Azadirachta indica; growth inhibition; leachates; Parthenium hysterophorus; stimulation

Addresses: Kumar S (reprint author), Kisan Post Grad Coll, Dept Bot, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 245207 India
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Title: Allelopathic interactions of tree spp. with mustard crop

Author(s): Abdulla MK, Kumar S, Ali H, Sindhu A, Sindhu G

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 335-340 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; Albizzia lebbek; bark and leaf leachate; Brassica juncea; germination; Mangifera indica; Melia azedarach; Morus alba; seedling growth; Tectona grandis

Addresses: Kumar S (reprint author), Kisan Post Grad Coll, Dept Bot, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 245207 India
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Title: Allelopathic effect of Amaranthus viridis (L.) and Parthenium hysterophorus (L.) on wheat, maize and rice

Author(s): Ali H, Kumar S, Abdulla MK, Sindhu G, Sindhu A

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 341-346 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; allelochemicals; Amaranthus viridis; extracts; germination; maize; Parthenium hysterophorus; rice; wheat


Addresses: Kumar S (reprint author), Kisan Post Grad Coll, Dept Bot, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 245207 India
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Title: Feasibility of bio-control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. with foliar extracts of selected plants

Author(s): Saxena A, Bartariya G, Srivastava JN, Satsangi GP

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 347-352 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: Acacia nilotica; allelopathy; Artemisia annua; bioassay; Calotropis procera; Cassia fistula; Eucalyptus lanceolatus; germination; leaf leachates; Parthenium hysterophorus; Polyathia longifolia; Populus deltoides; Ricinus communis; seedling growth; Tagetes patula

KeyWords Plus: GROWTH; WEED

Addresses: Saxena A (reprint author), Dayalbagh Educ Inst, Fac Sci, Dept Bot, Agra, Uttar Pradesh 282005 India
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Title: Allelopathic potential of Cyperus rotundus (L) on germination and seedling growth of Oryza sativa (L)

Author(s): Bartariya G, Saxena A, Srivastava JN, Satsangi GP

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (2): 353-358 OCT 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; bioassay; Cyperus rotundus; germination; Oryza sativa; seedling growth; weeds

Addresses: Bartariya G (reprint author), Dayalbagh Educ Inst, Fac Sci, Dept Bot, Agra, Uttar Pradesh 282005 India
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Title: Allelopathic plants. XVIL. Cistus ladanifer L.

Author(s): Dias AS, Costa CT, Dias LS

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 1-30 JUL 2005

Abstract: Cistus ladanifer is a Mediterranean aromatic shrub with wide array of anatomical, phenological and physiological characteristics that explains its success as a pioneer species in and environments. Also, it is very well fitted to cyclic and strong disturbances as those resulting from frequent fires., Therefore, in addition to a general characterization of the species, we address the fire ecology of C ladanifer and the role that allelopathy might play in it. Ladane is singled out, considering not only its production and protective role but also presenting a comprehensive review of its chemical composition. Finally, allelopathic research involving microbes, crops and search for natural herbicides, and natural ecosystems is presented, reanalyzed and discussed emphasizing interactions of effects and their significance on the ecological role of secondary products of C ladanifer.

Author Keywords: Allelopathy; antagonism; Cistus ladanifer; fire ecology; flavonoids; germination; interaction of effects; ladane; natural herbicides; phenolic acids; seeds; steroids; synergy; terpenoids; trichomes; UV protection


Addresses: Dias LS (reprint author), Univ Evora, Ctr Quim, Dept Quim, Evora, P-7002554 Portugal
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Title: Allelochemicals as fluorescent markers, dyes and probes

Author(s): Roshchina VV

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 31-46 JUL 2005

Abstract: Some allelochemicals, viz., alkaloids and terpenoids, can fluoresce by excitation from ultra-violet or violet light. The fluorescence occurred both in intact secretory plant cells rich in alkaloids and terpenoids and in excretions from the cells of various organs of Achillea millefolium L., Berberis vulgaris L., Chelidonium majus L., Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Abies sibirica L., Ruta graveolens L.; Mentha piperita L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Among the allelopatically active species studied, bright orange light emission was peculiar to root idioblasts of Ruta graveolens, which contain acridone alkaloids, especially rutacridone and to laticifers of Chelidonium. majus, including alkaloids sanguinarine and chelerythrine, where blue fluorescence was seen due to sesquiterpene lactones located in secretory cells of leaves and flowers of genera Achillea, Artemisia and Gaillardia.. The fluorescence may serve as a marker for the cytodiagnostics of the secretory structures in luminescent microscope. In our experiments, alkaloids viz., berberine, glaucine, casuarine fluoresced in violet-blue (410-470 nm) and green-yellow region with maximum 520 nm; the alkaloids rutacridone, sanguinarine, chelerythrine in orange spectral region (585-600 nm) and sesquiterpene lactones viz., artemisinine, tauremisine, gaillardine in violet-blue (410 470 nm). When the pure fluorescent substances (10(-6)-10(-5)M) were added to the acceptor cell (vegetative. microspores of Equisetum arvense or pollen of Hippeastrum hybridum) that served for the modelling of allelopathic interactions, the changes in their fluorescence were seen. Alkaloids, which also have the anti cholinesterase activity, such as berberine and sanguinarine concentrated and fluoresced with yellow-orange colour on the surface of the cell. Pollen germination in artificial nutrient medium decreased after the addition of berberine and sanguinarine. As for alkaloid rutacridone and sesquiterpene lactones (artemisinine, azulene and gaillardine) which passed through plasmalemma into the cell, they stained intracellular structures. As a result, nuclei and chloroplasts became green- lightening (the staining with rutacridone) or blue- lightening (the staining with sesquiterpene lactones). The compounds may be used to study the mechanisms of allelochemical action and in laboratory practice as fluorescent dyes and probes.

Author Keywords: Alkaloids; allelochemicals; artemisinine; chemosignalling; Equisetum arvense; fluorescence; gaillardine; Hippeastrum; hybridum; microspores; pollen; sensory systems; sesquiterpene lactones; tauremizine


Addresses: Roshchina VV (reprint author), Russian Acad Sci, Inst Cell Biophys, Pushchino, 142290 Russia
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Title: Pot cultures : simple tool and complex problem

Author(s): Politycka B, Lipinska H

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 47-62 JUL 2005

Abstract: The pot studies are very important part of allelopathy research. There are different methods of pot cultures for allelopathy investigations. Several methodological problems and conditioning are outlined, which must be met to obtain credible evidences, confirming the allelopathy phenomena in the ecosystem. Attention has been called to the aspects which should be considered in planning and conduct of experiments. The obtained results should be interpreted with extreme caution.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; allelochemicals; methodological problems; pot-cultures


Addresses: Politycka B (reprint author), Agr Univ Lublin, Dept Grassland & Green Farming, Akad 15, Lublin, PL-20950 Poland
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Title: Understanding plant strategies: Broader view for allelopathy scientists

Author(s): Aliotta G, Cafiero G, Pollio A

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 63-76 JUL 2005

Abstract: Agriculture is the complex process of scientific knowledge, methods and practices to obtain useful materials from crops. Weeds comprise the "other set" of plant species found in agroecosystems. Although they are not intentionally sown, but are well adapted to crop environments and have always been associated with crops. Concerns over environmental and human health impacts of pesticides, herbicide resistance in weeds have led farmers and scientists in many countries to seek strategies that take greater advantage of ecological and biotechnological processes. Seed dispersal and seed germination are critical phases in the life-cicle of the plant, during these phases the forces of natural selection have a maximum opportunity to exert their influence. These clues have been evaluated for three annual weeds: purslane, lambsquarter and redroot pigweed to use allelopathy for weed control.

Author Keywords: agriculture; allelopathy; Amaranthus retroflexus; Chenopodium album; lambsquarter; Portulaca oleracea; purslane; redroot pigweed; seeds; weeds


Addresses: Aliotta G (reprint author), Univ Naples Federico II, Ctr Interdipartimentale Serv Microscopia Elett, Via Foria 223, Naples, I-80139 Italy


Title: Soil sickness and allelopathy

Author(s): Politycka B

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 77-84 JUL 2005

Abstract: Simple crop rotations and the use of excessive agrochemicals in agriculture has lead to the changes in physico-chemical and biological properties of soil, adversely influencing the plant development and decreased the crops yield. This phenomenon is known an soil sickness. This review describes the factors responsible for the soil. sickness.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; monocultures; soil sickness


Addresses: Politycka B (reprint author), August Cieszkowski Agricultural Univ, Dept Plant Physiol, Wolynska 35, Poznan, PL-60637 Poland
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Title: Saponins of Medicago sativa as the natural inductor of laccase from Trametes versicolor

Author(s): Jarosz-Wilkolazka A, Malarczyk E, Bialy Z, Jurzysta M

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 85-93 JUL 2005

Abstract: The influence of aqueous extracts of alfalfa (Medicago saliva) tops, roots, seeds and isolated total saponins (SAP) from alfalfa roots on the growth and biological activity of Trametes versicolor was examined. Results indicate that saponins from roots of a Medicago saliva strain are very good inductors of extracellular laccase (LAC). This strain was cultivated on liquid, mineral medium for 30 days. A 10-fold increase in the LAC activity was observed after the addition of saponins. Both crude saponin extracts and highly refined saponins were examined. The kinetic data were calculated for crude LAC prepared from the liquid growth medium of T versicolor. These data were obtained with three different substrates: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and o-methoxyphenol (o-MP) in the presence of SAP. Using ABTS as substrate, the quantity of SAP did not make any difference for the Km and Vmax. The same results were obtained using DMP as substrate in the presence of 0.1 and 1 mg of SAP and the lowest results were obtained with o-MP as substrate. The results of the present study suggest that saponins may be used as natural inductors of fungal LAC and this would obviate the need to use toxic xenobiotics.

Author Keywords: alfalfa; laccase; Medicago saliva; saponins; Trametes versicolor


Addresses: Jarosz-Wilkolazka A (reprint author), Inst Soil Sci & Plant Cultivat, Dept Biochem, Czartoryskich 8, Pulawy, PL-24100 Poland
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Title: Oxygen electrode for seedling metabolism measurements in allelopathy

Author(s): Martinez-Otero A, Gonzalez L, Reigosa MJ

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 95-103 JUL 2005

Abstract: Measurements of photosynthetic and respiration rates are essential to quantify the primary effects of an allelochemical on plant metabolism. Oxygen electrode had been used to test the physiological effects on photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism in adult plant parts and cell organelles. So, we have resolved to set up and improve these measurements on seedlings to obtain more accurate data in experiments, where natural chemical compounds are involved and interact with plant metabolism. The oxygen variation in course time was used to measure the photosynthesis and respiration rates of seedlings and plants parts of Lactuca sativa L., incubated in 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA), at 30 degrees C. This method has two advantages: (i) it needs small quantity of media volume and (ii) a very small quantity of plant material, that allows studies in the first stage of the plant development. Currently, this method can not be used in allelopathy, due to difficulty to standardise the experimental procedure and the use of whole seedling. So, we set it up, to determine the accurate respiration and photosynthetic rates on seedlings of L. sativa and for its simplicity to operate in allelopathic studies.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; development; hypocotiles; method; oxygen electrode; photosynthesis; physiological effects; respiration; seedlings


Addresses: Gonzalez L (reprint author), Univ Vigo, Dept Biol Vexetal & Ciencia Solo, Edificio Ciencias Expt, Vigo, 36310 Spain
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Title: Antifungal activity of saponins from Medicago arabica L. shoots against some pathogens

Author(s): Saniewska A, Jarecka A, Bialy Z, Jurzysta M

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 105-111 JUL 2005

Author Keywords: antifungal activity; fungal spp.; Medicago arabica; saponins


Addresses: Jurzysta M (reprint author), Inst Soil Sci & Plant Cultivat, Dept Biochem & Plant Qual, Czartoryskich 8, Pulawy, PL-24100 Poland
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Title: Effect of rye mulch on growth of weeds under no-tillage cultivation

Author(s): Jelonkiewicz M, Borowy A

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 113-120 JUL 2005

Author Keywords: Amaranthus retroflexus; cabbage; Capsella bursa-pastoris; carrot; celeriac; Chenopodium album; cover crop; cucumber; Echinochloa crus-galli; G. quadriradiata; Galinsoga parviflora; leek; Polygonum persicaria; red beet; rye mulch; snap bean; tomato; turnip; Urtica urens; weeds; weed density


Addresses: Borowy A (reprint author), Univ Agr, Dept Vegetable Crops & Med Plants, 58 St Leszczynskiego St, Lublin, PL-20068 Poland
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Title: Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

Author(s): Kalinova J, Triska J, Vrchotova N

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 123-129 JUL 2005

Author Keywords: biological activity; extract; Fagopyrum esculenthum; inhibition; lettuce; phenolic compounds

Addresses: Kalinova J (reprint author), Acad Sci Czech Republ, Inst Landscape Ecol, Analyt Chem Lab, Branisovska 31, Ceske Budejovice, CR-37005 Czech Republic
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Title: Allelopathic role of phenolic compounds extruded by Medicago sativa L. leaves in response to bacterial or viral infections

Author(s): Zobel AM, Bialonska D, Silva C, Nighswander JE

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 16 (1): 131-136 JUL 2005

Author Keywords: infection; leaf surface; Medicago sativa; scoparone; scopoletin


Addresses: Bialonska D (reprint author), Inst Environm Sci, 7 Gronostajowa, Krakow, PL-30387 Poland
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Title: Seed hydration-dehydration in an allelochemical (coumarin) alters germination and seedling growth

Author(s): Williams RD, Peal LK, Bartholomew PW, Williams SJ

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 183-195 APR 2005

Abstract: Generally, when individual allelochemical compounds are tested at concentrations commonly found in the soil, using seed germination or seedling growth bioassays, germination is only delayed and seedling growth is inhibited slightly. However, seeds in the soil may pass through several hydration-dehydration cycles prior to germination. We examined the effect of imbibition of an allelochemical on subsequent seed germination and seedling growth, by exposing radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds to coumarin during hydration-dehydration cycles. Seed germination after 24 h exposure to the allelochemical, was 92%, 85%, 51%, 0% in the control and coumarin at 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) M, respectively, and was 99%, 96%, 96% and 24%, respectively at 48 h after exposure. When seeds were exposed to 10(-5) and 10(-3) M coumarin, during imbibition for 2, 4 or 6 h, and transferred to water, Subsequent germination was delayed. The longer the exposure to 10(-3) M coumarin, the greater was delay in germination. Seeds exposed to coumarin (10(-5) or 10(-3) M) for 5 h and air dried for 14 h still showed effect of allelochemical pretreatment. Seeds imbibed in 10(-5) or 10(-3) M coumarin, or water for 5 h, air dried for 14 h and germinated in water, 10(-5) M or 10(-3) M coumarin, reduced the radicle lengths at 48 h. If the seeds were hydrated in coumarin and dehydrated several times, subsequent radicle elongation was also reduced. Seeds hydrated in 10(-3) M coumarin for 1 to 3 cycles and geminated in either 10(-5) M coumarin or water showed a decrease, while seeds hydrated in water for 1 to 3 cycles and germinated in 10(-3) M coumarin showed a slight increase in radicle length with increased number of cycles. It appears that seeds in the soil could absorb an allelochemical during hydration - dehydration that would inhibit or delay germination and/or affect seedling growth rate, which would provide neighboring seedlings opportunity for faster establishment and a competitive advantage.

Author Keywords: imbibition; priming; radicle elongation; radicle growth; radish; Raphanus sativus L.; seed germination; wetting-drying cycles

Addresses: Williams RD (reprint author), Langston Univ, USDA ARS, GRL, POB 1730, Langston, OK 73050 USA
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Title: Allelopathic potential of beans (Phaseolus spp.) and other crops

Author(s): Nava-Rodriguez V, Hernandez-Bautista BE, Cruz-Ortega R, Anaya AL

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 197-210 APR 2005

Abstract: The in vitro effects of aqueous leachates from fresh and dry, flowering and vegetative stage of some Phaseolus vulgaris and P. coccineus varieties, alfalfa, faba bean, vetch, maize, squash, and weed species were evaluated on the same bean varieties, maize, squash, amaranth, barnyardgrass, morninglory, and purslane root growth, as well as on the growth of two Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strains (CPMexl and Tlaxcala). Most of the plants were collected from the agricultural drained field ("Camellon") in Tlaxcala, Mexico,where farmers do not use pesticides. Maize, beans, squash, alfalfa, faba-bean and vetch are intercropped or rotated in a traditional way. Significant effects of leachates from fresh (10%) vegetative and flowering cultivated plants and weeds were predominantly stimulatory. Among the species tested alfalfa and pinto bean leachates prepared from fresh shoot material were the most stimulatory (29% to 67% and 43% to 75.5% respectively). Aqueous leachates from fresh and dry (1%) cultivated legumes (vegetative and flowering) inhibited weed growth in ranges froth 20% to 43% for fresh material, and 26% to 84% for dry material. In contrast, the aqueous leachates prepared from the dry shoot of most of the plants tested resulted in inhibition of root growth of the test crops (29% to 58%), except to maize. Leachates were also tested on two Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strains. The crop leachates stimulated the growth of both strains except those of P. coccineus var. morado that were inhibitory. Leachates from fresh shoot material of the weeds (Simsia amplexicaulis and Tradescantia crassifolia) significantly inhibited the growth of CPMexl strain, while leachates prepared from fresh root material inhibited the growth of the Tlaxcala strain. In preliminary separation and identification tests using thin layer chromatography (TLC), phenolics were detected in dry shoot material of vegetative alfalfa, pinto bean, and vetch, and flowering faba bean. Results suggest the role of these compounds in the allelopathic effects of these legume aqueous leachates.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; aqueous leachates; legume crops; maize; Rhizobium; phenolics; weeds


Addresses: Anaya AL (reprint author), Univ Autonoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, Dept Prod Agricola & Anim, Calzada del Hueso 1100,Villa Quietud, Mexico City, DF Mexico
E-mail Addresses: alanaya@miranda.ecologia.unam.mxf


Title: Potential allelochemicals isolated from Pueraria phaseoloides

Author(s): Arruda MSP, De Araujo MQ, Lobo LT, De Souza AP, Alves SM, Santos LD, Muller AH, Arruda AC, Guilhon GMSP

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 211-219 APR 2005

Abstract: Two pyranoisofavones, alpinumisofavone and 4'-methyl-alpinumisoflavone and methyl 2-(&beta;-D-glucopyranosyloxy) benzoate were isolated from the aerial parts of Pueraria phaseoloides. Phytotoxic effects of these compounds and of the P. phaseoloides hydroalcoholic extract fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partition were examined in Petri dish bioassay. The dichloromethanic and ethyl acetate fractions had a significant effect on seed germination of the weed species Mimosa pudica, showing 100 and 76% inhibition, respectively. However, the three isolated compounds had a greater effect on radicle elongation of the weed species Mimosa pudica, Senna obusifolia, Senna occidentalis and Urena lobata. 4'-Methyl-alpinumisoflavone at the highest dose tested (3.0 ppm) exhibited stronger inhibition (77%) on S. obtusifolia, whereas, alpinumisoflavone at 3.0 ppm was more active (60 inhibition) on U. lobata and methyl 2-(&beta;-D-glucopyranosyloxy) benzoate at 4.0 ppm (the highest dose tested) showed significant inhibition (44%) on M. pudica. Our experimental data showed that three natural products tested have selective herbicidal activity against weed species.

Author Keywords: allelochemicals; allelopathy; leguminosae; Mimosa pudica; Pureraria phaseoloides; pyranoisoflavones; salicylic acid derivative; Senna obtusifolia; Senna occidentalis; Urena lobata


Addresses: Arruda MSP (reprint author), Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Lab Agroind, Trav Dr Eneas Pinheiro S-N, Belem, Para BR-66095100 Brazil
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Title: Allelopathic activity of common weed species on vegetable crops grown in Jordan

Author(s): Obaid KA, Qasem JR

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 221-235 APR 2005

Abstract: Allelopathic activity of weeds (Amaranthus gracilis Desf, Convolvulus arvensis L., Lactuca serriola L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) was studied on selected vegetable crops (cabbage, carrot, cucumber, onion, pepper, squash and tomato) under glasshouse conditions. The root exudates of weeds released into the soil had variable effects on different test crops. However, L. serriola root exudates were found most toxic to growth of different crops. Soil-incorporated dried shoot residues, reduced the seedlings growth of the test crops and the degree of inhibition was residue rate dependent. Soil-surface placed weed residues delayed seedlings emergence, but their effects on seedlings growth was lower than soil-incorporated residues. Decayed residues of different weeds inhibited the seedlings growth but their effect was less as compared to un-decayed residues. In all experiments, roots were more sensitive than shoots to allelopathic effects and both positive and negative effects were observed. The weeds differed in their allelopathic effects, depending on the method used and allelochemicals concentration in the medium. The effect however, could be changed and depended on the test weed and crop species used. C. arvensis proved most harmful to all test crops, while cabbage, onion and tomato were most affected than other crops.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; Amaranthus gracilis; Convolvulus arvensis; Lactuca serriola; Portulaca oleracea; vegetable crops; weeds


Addresses: Qasem JR (reprint author), Univ Jordan, Fac Agr, Dept Plant Protect, Amman, Jordan
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Title: Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on growth, nodulation and AM colonization of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek

Author(s): Bajwa R, Nazi I

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 237-246 APR 2005

Abstract: Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, were investigated on germination, plant growth, nodulation, yield and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization in Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek. In aqueous extract bioassays, 60% aqueous extract delayed the seed germination. However, the final germination percentage was not significantly affected by aqueous extracts. Shoot length of seedlings was gradually suppressed by increase in the extract concentration tom 10-50% yet shoot biomass was enhanced insignificantly in 10 and 20% extract as compared to control. Adverse effect of 40 and 50% extract was significant. Root length was increased by 10% extract while 40 and 50% extracts significantly suppressed the studied parameters. Root dry biomass was enhanced by all the extract concentrations. Effect was more pronounced in 30% than the rest of the extract treatments. In pot experiment 1,2 and 3% aqueous extract and leaf mixing treatments generally supported plant growth, nodulation and yield. Mycorrhizal colonization was adversely affected in response to allelopathy.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; aqueous exrtract; arbuscular mycorrhyza; bioassay; Eucalyptus citriodora; mycorrhizal colonization; Vigna radiata

Addresses: Bajwa R (reprint author), Univ Punjab, Dept Bot, Lahore, Pakistan
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Title: Induction of stress tolerance in fingermillet by Chromolaena odorata

Author(s): Ambika SR, Smitha G

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 247-257 APR 2005

Abstract: The extracts of Chromolaena odorata inhibited the growth of fingermillet. But presoaking of fingermillet seeds in these extracts promoted the crop growth. The plants were sturdier and bigger with broader leaves. These leaves had more number of vascular bundles and bundle sheath cells. The treatment with extracts induced the formation of more primary and secondary metabolites. The amount of chloroplast pigments was also increased. The stress index value of treated seedlings and the chlorophyll stability index of 60 days old plants were in favour of induction of stress tolerance by extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

Author Keywords: Chromolaena odorata; presoaking; stress tolerance


Addresses: Ambika SR (reprint author), Bangalore Univ, Dept Bot, Bangalore, Karnataka 560056 India
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Title: The role of triterpenes in the weed-insect interaction

Author(s): Barik A, Banerjee TC

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 259-266 APR 2005

Abstract: The triterpene compounds present in the rice-field weed, Ludwigia adscendens (L.) leaves were analyzed by the TLC, FT-IR spectroscopy and H-1 NMR for evaluating the fractions secondarily functional as a chemical cue for attraction of the folivorous flea beetle, Altica cyanea (Weber). The flourescence of the triterpenes revealed the presence of greenish and yellowish compounds in TLC plates, and the FT-IR spectroscopy of the purified compounds showed the existence of - - OH stretch, - - aliphatic C - H, - C = 0, - C - H bend methylene and - C - H bending methyl groups, - - OH stretch, - - aliphatic - C - H, - C = O, - C - H bend methylene, - C - H bending methyl groups and - C - O stretch groups, respectively. The H-1 NMR analysis of greenish and yellowish triterpene compounds revealed 8 values within the range of 0.8558 - 1.2533 and 0.8550 - 1.2533 implicating the existence of tertiary methyl groups. Higher &delta; values (e.g. 7.7173, 7.5440 and 7.1671 for greenish, and 7.7155, 7.5350, 7.2640, 7.1866 and 7.1671 for yellowish triterpenes) also revealed the existence of alcoholic - OH connected to the CH2 group. Olfactory bioassays with greenish triterpene fractions showed significant (P < 0.05) attraction at 30 - 50 &mu; g/ml concentrations, while these with all yellowish triterpene fractions showed 83.8 - 96.7% no response and 3.3 - 16.7% aversions of the female flea beetles. The control solvent, however, produced no response.

Author Keywords: Ludwigia adscendens; TLC fractions; FT-IR and H-1 NMR spectroscopy; triterpene compounds; Altica cyanea; olfactory bioassays


Addresses: Banerjee TC (reprint author), Univ Burdwan, Dept Zool, Ecol Res Unit, Burdwan, W Bengal 713104 India
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Title: Allelopathic interference of Parthenium hysterophorus residues in soil

Author(s): Batish DR, Singh HP, Pandher JK, Kohli RK

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 267-273 APR 2005

Abstract: A study was conducted to explore the allelopathic potential of ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.; Asteraceae) residue and to determine its possible interactions with soil nutrient status. The extracts prepared from 1, 2 and 4-weeks old Parthenium residues significantly inhibited the seedling growth (length and dry weight) of two test crops - radish and mustard. Soils were amended with varying amounts and ages of residue and their effect on radish and mustard growth and soil nutrients was determined. The growth of both crops was significantly inhibited in the amended soil as compared to unamended soil. A decrease in phytotoxicity was observed with increasing age of residue. The amount of N, P, K, and micronutrients increased significantly in the amended soil compared to unamended soils, thereby ruling out any possibility of their direct involvement in observed growth inhibitions. However, in the older residues, the amount of all the nutrients (except N) decreased compared to younger residue, though it was more than that of unamended soils. The residue extracts and amended soils were observed to be rich in phenolics -known allelochemicals. Based on the results, it is concluded that Parthenium residues affect the growth of test species by releasing phenolics rather than decreasing the available nutrient status in the soil.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; amended soils; mustard (Brassica campestris); phenolics; ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus); radish (Raphanus sativus); residues; soil nutrients


Addresses: Batish DR (reprint author), Punjabi Univ, Dept Bot, Chandigarh, 160014 India
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Title: Effects of Physalis minima on Parthenium hysterophorus

Author(s): Swain D, Pandey P, Paroha S, Singh M, Yaduraju NT

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 275-283 APR 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; bioassay; chlorophyll; Parthenium hysterophonts; Physalis minima; protein

Addresses: Swain D (reprint author), Natl Res Ctr Weed Sci, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482004 India
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Title: Allelopathic effects of trees extract, on germination and seedling growth of field crops

Author(s): Todaria NP, Singh B, Dhanai CS

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 285-293 APR 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; Boehmeria rugulosa; Brassica campestris; Celtis australis; Focus roxburghii; germination; Grewia oppositifolia; growth; Hordeum vulgare; Triticum aestivum

Addresses: Todaria NP (reprint author), HNB Garhwal Univ, Dept Forestry, Post Box 59, Uttaranchal, 246179 India
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Title: Effect of weeds pollens on the germination of crops pollens

Author(s): Chauhan SVS, Gaur S, Rana A

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 295-302 APR 2005

Author Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Argemone mexicana L.; Brassica juncea L.; Cannabis sativa L.; Nicotiana tabacum L.; pollen allelopathy; Ricinus communis L.; Solanum melongena L.


Addresses: Chauhan SVS (reprint author), Dr BR Ambedkar Univ, Sch Life Sci, Agra, Uttar Pradesh 282002 India
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Title: Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus on the chlorphyll, nitrogen, protein and ascorbic acid content of Lantana camara

Author(s): Bajaj A, Saxena M, Shrivastava S

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (2): 305-309 APR 2005

Author Keywords: ascorbic acid; allelochemicals; chlorophyll; Lantana camara; nitrogen; Parthenium hysterophorus; protein; weed management


Addresses: Shrivastava S (reprint author), BMDG, CSIR, Reg Res Lab, Hoshangabad Rd, Bhopal, 462026 India
E-mail Addresses:,,


Title: Allelopathy in China

Author(s): Kong CH

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 2-2 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; Chinese Allelopathy Society; Chinese Allelopathy Conference

Addresses: Kong CH (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Appl Ecol, Chinese Allelopathy Soc, China Soc Plant Protect, Shenyang, 110016 Peoples R China
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Title: Use of allelopathy for weed management in China - A review

Author(s): Ni HW, Zhang CX

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 3-11 JAN 2005

Abstract: Utilizing allelopathic plants to suppress the weed infestation is most cost-effective and environment-friendly method of weed control. Recently, it has received more attention in China and many research groups are working in this area. The research covers (a) screening of allelopathic crop germplasm, (b) breeding and genetics of allelopathic crops, (c) mechanism of allelopathic interactions between the crops and weeds and (d) identification of allelochemicals etc. Good progress has been made in selection of allelopathic rice lines, based on allelochemical fingerprinting and in chemical signals for communication between allelopathic rice and barnyardgrass plants. Some rice cultivars with strong allelopathic capability have been identified and advanced allelopathic rice lines have been bred. These rice lines showed very good performance for weed control in paddy fields. Future research needs to understand the dynamics of allelochemicals in soil and molecular biology of allelopathic plants.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; crop; weed management


Addresses: Ni HW (reprint author), China Agr Univ, Coll Agron & Biotechnol, Beijing, 100094 Peoples R China
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Title: Preliminary studies on the allelopathic potential of wild rice (Oryza) germplasm

Author(s): Guo YQ, Zhang FD, Tao DY, Yu LQ, David G

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 13-19 JAN 2005

Abstract: Allelopathic potential in wild rice species against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., Beauv.) was evaluated in bioassay and pot experiments in greenhouse and laboratory. Two wild rice accessions of S46 (Oryza barthii) and S72 (O. rufipogon) significantly reduced the plant height and dry weight of barnyardgrass. While, a wild rice accession of S37 (O. longistaminata) reduced the barnyardgrass germination rate significantly. The inhibitory effects of wild rice on the weed was greater during the rice elongation stage than at the reviving stage. Accessions S68 and S72 increasingly inhibited the plant height and dry weight of barnyardgrass as the distance between rice and weed plants decreased. Raw extracts from S37 were more inhibitory to the emergence rate, root length and seedling height of barnyardgrass than other accessions of wild rice.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; competition; Echinochloa crus-galli; Oryza barthii; O. longistaminata; O. nivara; O. rufipogon

Addresses: Yu LQ (reprint author), China Natl Rice Res Inst, Hangzhou, 310006 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathy in wheat genotypes during the germination and seedling stages

Author(s): Zuo SP, Ma YQ, Deng XP, Li XW

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 21-30 JAN 2005

Abstract: Allelopathic effects of 10 wheat genotypes were studied in bioassays on germination and root length of lettuce. The germinating wheat seeds and seedlings of all genotypes inhibited the radicle elongation of lettuce. Excluding Secale cereale L., the inhibitory effects of wheat genotypes increased with wheat evolution history, as the genome changed from 2n to 4n to 6n. Allelopathic inhibition of different wheat genomes on lettuce radicles showed a decreasing trend of AABBDD > BB > AABB > RR > AA > DD. This suggests that the allelopathic genes may be located on genome BB and the allelopathic traits in the genomes may have evolved at different rates. The allelopathic effects of 10 spp. were correlated with age (20, 40, 60 d) of the seedlings. The allelopathic effects of different plant parts decreased in order aerial parts > whole plant > roots. A cluster analysis (Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic averages, UPGMA) was conducted for the allelopathic effect of 10 spp. at germination and seedling phases. In cluster analysis wheat spp. were divided into three categories based on their allelopathic effects on lettuce radicle. (a). Weak allelopathy: Triticum boeoticum L., French, Secale cereale L., Aegilops.tauschii Cosson Syn, Triticum dicoccoides K., Tritium aestivum L. Var. Shaan 160 and T aestivum Var. No.1 Ningdong. (b). Moderate allelopathy: Triticum monococcum L., Aegilops.speltoides L. and Triticum dicoccum S. and (c). Strong allelopathy: T aestivum Var. common wheat.

Author Keywords: allelopathic effect; genotype; germination and seedling stages; wheat


Addresses: Ma YQ (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, NW Univ Agr & Forestry, Minist Water Resource, Inst Soil & Water Conservat,State Key Lab Soil Er, Yangling, Shaanxi Prov 712100 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic potentials of traditional Chinese medicinal plant spp.

Author(s): Jiang HY, Zhang YN, Feng PZ, Gao XW

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 31-39 JAN 2005

Abstract: China has rich plant biodiversity and many plants show bioactivities on human and animals. Allelopathic studies on traditional Chinese medicinal plant species have started recently. Twenty three traditional Chinese medicinal plant species were selected to test their allelopathic activities on wheat and cucumber. The allelopathic activities of S. alopecuroides, C komarovii, V. officinalis, R. officinale, R. glutinosa, C komarovii, S. nux-vomica and L. lucidum on plants are reported first time on agricultural pests. The extract from L. radiata drastically inhibited (> 90%) the growth of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants, its inhibitory effects stopped the germination of wheat and cucumber seeds. C. komarovii and C hederacea plants extracts were most inhibitory (>80%) to root growth of both monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant roots. C komarovii also inhibited the plant shoot elongation. The other plant species with higher allelopthic activity only inhibited either monocotyledon or dicotyledon plants. Fourteen plant species inhibited the growth of monocotyledons, but only 3 plants spp. (L. radiata, Artemisia scoparia and C. komarovii) were inhibitory to the root and shoot growth of dicotylecon plants. Extracts of R. glutinosa, L. radiata, A. scoparia, L. lucidum, C. ambrosiodes and S.nux-vomica strongly inhibited the shoot length of endosperm removed wheat seedlings, indicating that the extracts might inhibit the photosynthesis. The traditional Chinese medicinal plant spp. possess numerous allelochemicals with different mechanisms and selectivity. This study clearly demonstrated that the medicinal plant species are potent sources of allelochemicals, which could be used for sustainable weed management and ecofriendly environment.

Author Keywords: allelopathic activity; Calyslegia hederacea; cucumber; herb; Lycoris radiata herb; medicinal plants


Addresses: Jiang HY (reprint author), Chinese Acad Agr Sci, MOA, Inst Plant Protect, Key Lab Pesticide Chem & Applicat Technol, Beijing, 100094 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic effects of winter wheat residues on germination and growth of crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) and corn yield

Author(s): Li XJ, Wang GQ, Li BH, Blackshaw RE

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 41-48 JAN 2005

Abstract: Crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) is major weed in corn (Zea mays) in China. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effects of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) residues oil the germination and growth of this weed. Under laboratory conditions, aqueous extracts of wheat shoots and roots markedly reduced its germination. The germination was inhibited more by extracts from shoots than roots and by the extracts from young seedlings than mature wheat plants. The inhibitory effects oil weed germination varied with wheat cultivars. In corn field, crabgrass density and biomass decreased with increase in the quantity of wheat residues. Wheat residue at 0.75 kg/m(2) reduced the Weed density by 87.3 to 96.4%, and biomass by 77,7 to 81.0%, over the two years. Reductions ill weed density and biomass in the field were likely due to the combined effects of physical suppression and allelopathy. Although germination, plant height and biomass of corn seedlings were slightly reduced in the wheat residue mulched plot, but corn yield was similar to control. These findings may lead to the improvement Ill current weed management programme for corn in the wheat-corn rotation in China.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris); integrated weed management; stubble mulch; weed suppression

Addresses: Li XJ (reprint author), Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Plant Protect, Beijing, 100094 Peoples R China
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Title: Stimulatory effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on seed germination of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

Author(s): Ma YQ, Shui JF, Inanaga S, Cheng JM

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 49-56 JAN 2005

Abstract: The fresh plant and powder of Houttuynia cordata stimulated the germination of Striga hermonthica. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of H. cordata extract revealed two zones of activity with maximum germination of 57 and 27%, respectively for R-f values of 0.4 and 0.53. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed two active zones I and 2, with fractions having retention times (t(R)) of 35 and 37 min. The maximum germination in these zones was 53 and 75%, respectively. The soil growing H. cordata for two years stimulated the seed germination of S. hermonthica. This study indicated that H. cordata root exudates contains germination stimulant of S. hermonthica.

Author Keywords: germination; Houttuynia cordata; induction; isolation; Striga hermonthica


Addresses: Ma YQ (reprint author), NW Sci Tech Univ Agr & Forestry, Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Soil & Water Conservat, Yangling, 712100 Peoples R China
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Title: Effects of phenolics on seedling growth and N-15 nitrate absorption of Cunninghamia lanceolata

Author(s): Chen LC, Wang SL, Yu XJ

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 57-65 JAN 2005

Abstract: Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) has replant problem under field conditions and has been attributed to phenolic allelochemicals, which cause its autotoxicity. To determine the mechanism of inhibitory effects of phenolics on Chinese fir, we studied their effects on growth and N-15 nitrate absorption by each organ of its seedlings, cultured in pots using N-15-labelled isotope trace technique. The 1x10(-3) mol(.)L(-1) vanillic acid and phenolics mixture (0.5x10(-3) mol(.)L(-1) vanillic acid and 0.5x10(-3) mol(.)L(-1) rho-hydroxybenzoic acid) significantly inhibited the seedling growth of Chinese fir. Phenolics solution of 1x10(-2) mol(.)L(-1) concentration decreased total N content of roots, stems and leaves. N-15 derived from the fertilizer (NDFF) in roots, stems and leaves treated with I x 10(-2) mol(.)L(-1) vanillic acid was 36.1, 42.7 and 38.5% less, respectively, and corresponding values for phenolics mixture at the same concentration were 14.1, 17.2, and 17.0% lower, respectively, compared to control. In contrast, vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid at 1x10(-5) mol(.)L(-1) stimulated the seedling growth, enhanced total N-15 content and increased N-15 nitrate absorption. These treatments also increased the N-15 nitrate distribution in roots and reduced its distribution in stems and leaves. We suggest that accumulated phenolics in soil could inhibit seedling growth through reducing nutrient absorption by Chinese fir and consequently leading to low productivity of replanted Chinese fir.

Author Keywords: allelochemicals; Chinese fir; p-hydroxybenzoic acid; N-15; phenolics; total N content; tracer; vanillic acid


Addresses: Wang SL (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Appl Ecol, Shenyang, 110016 Peoples R China
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Title: Autotoxicity of Panax quinquefolium L.

Author(s): Zhao YJ, Wang YP, Shao D, Yang JS, Liu D

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 67-74 JAN 2005

Abstract: Autotoxicity of American ginseng (Panax quinquefoliym L.) was studied in nutrient and soil culture in greenhouse. The autotoxins produced by American ginseng were identified with GC-MS. The most active autotoxins were present in stems, leaves, roots and root exudates. Among these, ether fraction of water extracts and alcohol extracts from either stems, leaves or fibrous roots drastically inhibited the growth of ginseng roots, while, the n-butyl alcohol fraction had little inhibitory effect. When the concentration of water solute autotoxins from stems/leaves or fibrous roots in soil reached I g per kg soil, the 4 years old American ginseng plants couldn't grow. At 0.2 g per kg soil concentration, the survival rate of ginseng decreased to 25%. The hydrophobic root secretions were analyzed with GC-MS and 26 compounds were identified, of which more that 64% were fatty acids and the remaining were furantone, sesquiterpenes, alkenes and alcohols.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; autotoxicity; ginseng; Panax quinquefoliym L.

Addresses: Zhao YJ (reprint author), Chinese Acad Med Sci, Peking Union Med Coll, Inst Med Plants, Beijing, 100094 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic effects of root extracts of egg plants on Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae)

Author(s): Wang RH, Zhou BL, Zhang FL, Zhang QF

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 75-83 JAN 2005

Abstract: Effect of root extracts from various rootstocks, and different concentrations were studied on the spore germination and mycelium growth of eggplant verticillium wilt. The root extracts of grafted eggplants inhibited the spore germination and mycelium growth of verticillium wilt. The inhibitory effects Were enhanced with increasing concentration of root extracts. The amino acids and main phenolic acids showed that, aspartic acid and threonine were present only in grafted treatments. The contents of alanine, methionine, isoleucine and tyrosine were higher in the grafted plants, while, those of glycine, phenylalanine and histidine were higher in non-grafted plants. Main phenolic acids present in root extracts were vanillin, cinnamic acids and benzoic acids. There were differences in quantity and composition of amino acids and phenolic acids between root extracts of grafted and non-grafted eggplants at some extent, which might be one of the reasons for resistance to the verticillium wilt.

Author Keywords: allelopathy; eggplant; grafting; root extracts; Solanum spp.; Verlicillium dahliae


Addresses: Zhou BL (reprint author), Shenyang Agr Univ, Coll Hort, Shenyang, 110161 Peoples R China
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Title: Comparative performance of nematode resistant rootstock and non-resistant tomato cultivars on soil biota

Author(s): Cao ZP, Chen GK, Chen YF, Yang H, Han LF, Dawson R

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 85-94 JAN 2005

Abstract: We compared the effects of two tomato cultivars - Maofen (Maofen-802) and resistant rootstock variety (Beaufort SIS-1, Lycopersicon lycopersicum x L. hirsutum) on soil biota population (fungi, protozoa, nematodes, mites) and microbial biomass carbon under severe infection of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The differences in soil biota composition were found between the two cultivars, when root-knot nematodes disease broke out in tomatoes near the harvest. The resistant rootstock promoted the soil microbial biomass and protozoa population, but decreased that of fungi (Trichoderma spp., Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., Pythium spp.) than Maofen cultivar. In resistant rootstock plot, both the root-knot nematode disease index and the density of Meloidogyne incognita juvenile were significantly lower than in Maofen plot during the late harvest period, but the density of free-living nematodes was much higher than in Maofen plot. Thus resistant rootstock increased population of beneficial nematode to suppress the pathogenic nematodes. Compared with Maofen, the resistant rootstock maintained the population of soil mites during the tomato growth and harvest period, contributing to a relative high biodiversity. Shannon-wiener's index of mites community were 1.63 in resistant rootstock plot and 0.83 in Maofen plot, while the Pielou's evenness index were 1.56 and 0.80, respectively.

Author Keywords: disease; fungi; greenhouse; mite; nematode; protozoa; resistant rootstock; root-knot nematode; soil biota; tomato


Addresses: Cao ZP (reprint author), Chinese Agr Univ, Coll Resources & Environm Sci, Dept Ecol & Ecol Engn, Beijing, 100094 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of submerged macrophytes against algal growth

Author(s): Xian QM, Chen HD, Qu LJ, Zou HX, Yin DQ

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 95-104 JAN 2005

Abstract: Aqueous extracts of three submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata) and their ethyl acetate fractions were bioassayed using Microcystis aeruginosa. C. demersum showed stronger growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa than others. Ethyl acetate fraction contained succinic acid, azelaic acid, cis-aconitic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, lactic acid and citric aicd. The potential allelopathic activities of these compounds on algal growth were discussed. Phenolic acid allelochemicals contributed more to the allelopathic effects of submerged macrophytes.

Author Keywords: allelochemicals; Ceratophyllum demersum; fatty acid; Hydrilla verticillata; Microcystis aeruginosa; phenolic acid; Vallisneria spiralis


Addresses: Zou HX (reprint author), Nanjing Univ, Sch Environm, State Key Lab Pollut Control & Resource Reuse, Nanjing, 210093 Peoples R China
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Title: Chemical response of allelopathic rice seedlings under varying environmental conditions

Author(s): Zhao H, Li HB, Kong CH, Xu XH, Liang WJ

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 105-110 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: allelochemical; allelopathy; environmental condition; Oiyza sativa L.; soil


Addresses: Kong CH (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Appl Ecol, Shenyang, 110016 Peoples R China
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Title: Identification of allelopathic potential of Chinese rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm

Author(s): Zhang ZB, Zhou YJ, Lu YL, Li D, Yu LQ

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 111-117 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathy; Chinese rice germplasm; Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis; I-Kung-Pao

Addresses: Yu LQ (reprint author), China Natl Rice Res Inst, Hangzhou, 310006 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic activity of root saponins of alfalfa on wheat, corn and barnyardgrass

Author(s): Li YZ, Liang WJ, Zhang XK, Liu FM, Zhu XH

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 119-123 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: alfalfa; allelopathy; barnyardgrass; bioassay; corn; saponins; wheat


Addresses: Liang WJ (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Shenyang Expt Stn Ecol, Inst Appl Ecol, Shenyang, 110016 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic effects of lantana (Lantana camera L.) on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

Author(s): Zhang MX, Ling B, Kong CH, Liang GW, Dong YZ

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 125-129 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: alielopathy; Eichhornia crassipes; Lantana camara; salicylic acid


Addresses: Zhang MX (reprint author), S China Agr Univ, Lab Insect Ecol, Guangzhou, 510642 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic potential of volatile allelochemicals of Ambrosia trifida L. on other plants

Author(s): Wang P, Liang WJ, Kong CH, Jiang Y

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 131-136 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: Allelopathy; Ambrosia trifida; chemical constituents; Echinochloa crusgalli stimulation; volatile oil


Addresses: Kong CH (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Appl Ecol, Shenyang Expt Stn Ecol, Shenyang, 110016 Peoples R China
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Title: Relationship of DIMBOA content in wheat seedlings and its resistance to plant pathogens

Author(s): Zheng YQ, Zhao Y, Dong FS, Yao JR, Hurle K

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 137-143 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: allelochemicals; DIMBOA; HPLC; quantitative analysis; resistance to pathogens; seedlings; wheat


Addresses: Zheng YQ (reprint author), Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Plant Protect, Beijing, 100094 Peoples R China
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Title: Allelopathic effects of different macrophytes on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa

Author(s): Li FM, Hu HY

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 145-151 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: allelopathic inhibition; macrophytes; Microcystis aeruginosa; Phragmites communis


Addresses: Hu HY (reprint author), Tsing Hua Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Engn, Environm Simulat & Pollut Control State Key Lab, Beijing, 100084 Peoples R China
Tsing Hua Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Engn, Environm Simulat & Pollut Control State Key Lab, Beijing, 100084 Peoples R China

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Title: Role of BVOCs in allelopathic interactions

Author(s): Chen ZQ, Wang YJ, Wei XY, Wen J, Peng SL

Source: ALLELOPATHY JOURNAL 15 (1): 153-162 JAN 2005

Author Keywords: BVOCs; health; negative effect; VOCs; volatile organic components


Addresses: Peng SL (reprint author), Zhongshan Univ, Dept Life Sci, Guangzhou, 510275 Peoples R China
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